DR. SAMUEL H. GRUBER
May 14th 1938 - April 18th 2019
"I have always loved the water and the beaches. As a child on Miami Beach, I began my interest in marine biology by collecting shells and lurking at the sport fishing docks from the age of seven. As I grew up I spent most of my days in or on the water, teaching myself to SCUBA dive at age 13. In 1952 I began a 10 year run at competition swimming and springboard diving as my major high school and university sport.
In my junior year at college, while spear fishing I was menaced by a huge hammerhead shark. I was absolutely terrified and awed as the giant fish was beautiful, magnificent and was circling me! When he did not actually kill and consume me, I knew that I wanted to learn more about these creatures so right then and there I began my lifetime work on these splendid creatures!
Upon entering graduate school at University of Miami I decided to study the lemon shark because they were available locally and were able to survive rather well in captivity. I spent my early career-years in the laboratory studying their behaviour and sensory physiology (vision, olfaction and hearing). But, soon I was spending so much time in the lab that I felt I was losing my focus on the animal itself. So I decided to change careers and to go directly into the sea with lemon sharks. Over the decade of the 80s I went to the Bahamas and Bimini in big, modern research vessels courtesy of the National Science Foundation. We basically went in search of the lemon shark and its mysteries.
During the period (1976-1990), I had been in a battle to the death with cancer called malignant lymphoma. It appears that I won, and getting a new lease on life I decided to forgo the research vessels and open my own field station on Bimini to conduct shark research on my own time. I thought I wouldn't have to beg for grants or funding if I could just get barely enough funds to run the station. But, eventually at the urging of the RSMAS dean I managed to receive grants from the Office of Naval Research National Science Foundation, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation National Sea Grant and the Florida State Department of Education! However the events of 9/11 overtook our funding so that today we rely heavily on generous patrons and philanthropic private donors. Thanks to these altruistic donors as well as our loyal volunteers and capable staff we are able to keep the Shark Lab afloat and provide a research environment for the worthy graduate students who train and study the endangered lemon sharks in the clear waters of the Bahamas." - Doc Gruber
Dr. Gruber hails originally from Brooklyn, N.Y., grew up in south Florida. He entered college in 1956, studying first at Emory University and then earning his B.S. in Zoology from the University of Miami (FL). He followed up in quick succession with his M.S. and Ph.D. in Marine Science from the then called the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Science--again at the University of Miami. He has held several positions at the University of Miami and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Max-Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology, Seewiesen, Germany where he was a behavioural researcher under Nobel Laureate Professor Dr. Konrad Lorenz.
Doc Gruber conducted field studies at marine stations at Eilat, Israel, Hurghada, Egypt and Okinawa, Japan. His position was Tenured Full Professor at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), University of Miami; he also serves as Adjunct Professor of Biology with the University of North Carolina (Wilmington) and is founder and director of the Bimini Biological Field Station, Bimini, Bahamas. Dr. Gruber was council member of the Bahamas National Trust and board member of the University of Southern Mississippi's College of Marine Science.
Dr. Gruber is a recognized authority of shark behaviour - both as to field studies and in regard to visually guided behaviour, and physiology. He was a longtime member of numerous professional societies and founded the American Elasmobranch Society in 1983. He founded the World Conservation Union's (IUCN) Shark Specialist Group and was its Chairperson between 1991 and 1996.
Dr. Gruber has presented over 125 meeting and invited lectures on a wide range of topics related to shark biology. He has mentored over 35 graduate students at UM and elsewhere, worked tirelessly to promote conservation of sharks, educational opportunities for teachers and minority high school students, provided professional service as a grant reviewer and has taught advanced courses at UM in animal behaviour, tropical marine biology, and the physiology and behaviour of marine organisms.
The National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, the State of Florida, the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation and many NGOs have funded Dr. Gruber's 50-year research career. He has been expedition leader and chief scientist on over 50 research cruises around the Atlantic Ocean. His prolific research career has thus far resulted in about 190 peer-reviewed, scientific publications. These ranged from works on shark repellants (including natural repellants such as that secreted by the Moses sole); shark maintenance in the laboratory; the visual, olfactory, and acoustic system of sharks; bioenergetics, age and growth, productivity, survival and nutrition in sharks; telemetry studies including habitat selection and homing of lemon sharks and eagle rays; circulating steroid hormones; commensal behaviours of stingrays and cleaner wrasses; and a number of anatomical studies on sharks. His recent emphasis has been on the behaviour, ecology and conservation biology of sharks.